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Luther: The Faith of Unbaptized Infants


Portrait of Martin Luther as an Augustinian Monk

Portrait of Martin Luther as an Augustinian Monk (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thus the spoken Word is indeed the word of a human being, but it has been instituted by divine authority for salvation.  For God wants to govern the world through angels and through human beings, His creatures, as through His servants, just as He gives light through the sun, the moon, and even through fire and candles.  Here, too, you could say: “No external thing profits.  The sun is an external thing.  Hence it profits nothing; that is, it does not give light, it does not warm, etc.”  Who would put up with one who argues in such a silly way?

Therefore the rule of which I have also spoken above stands.  It states that God no longer wants to act in accordance with His extraordinary or, as the scholastics express it, absolute power but wants to act through His creatures, whom He does not want to be idle.  Thus He gives food, not as He did to the Jews in the desert, when He gave manna from heaven, but through labor, when we diligently perform the work of our calling.  Furthermore, He no longer wants to form human beings from a clod, as He formed Adam, but He makes use of a union of a male and a female, on whom He bestows His blessing.  This they call God’s “ordered” power, namely, when He makes use of the service either of angels or of human beings.  Thus in the prophet Amos (3:7) there is the noteworthy statement that God does nothing that He does not first reveal to His prophets. 

But if at times some things happen without the service either of angels or of human beings, you would be right in saying: “What is beyond us does not concern us.”  We must keep the ordered power in mind and form our opinion on the basis of it.  God is able to save without Baptism, just as we believe that infants who, as sometimes happens through the neglect of their parents or through some other mishap, do not receive Baptism are not damned on this account.  But in the church we must judge and teach, in accordance with God’s ordered power, that without the outward Baptism no one is saved.  Thus it is due to God’s ordered power that water makes wet, that fire burns, etc.  But in Babylon Daniel’s companions continued to live unharmed in the midst of the fire (Dan. 3:25).  This took place through God’s absolute power, in accordance with which He acted at that time; but He does not command us to act in accordance with this absolute power, for He wants us to act in accordance with the ordered power.

Martin Luther, Lectures on Genesis, AE 3:273-274

Because daily I see and hear with what carelessness and lack of solemnity—to say nothing of out-and-out levity—people treat the high, holy, and comforting sacrament of baptism for infants, in part caused, I believe, by the fact that those present understand nothing of what is being said and done, I have decided that it is not only helpful but necessary to conduct the service in the German language  For this reason I have translated those portions that used to be said in Latin in order to begin baptizing in German, so that the sponsors and others present may be all the more aroused to faith and earnest devotion and so that the priests who baptize have to show more diligence for the sake of the listeners.

Out of a sense of Christian commitment, I appeal to all those who baptize, sponsor infants, or witness a baptism to take to heart the tremendous work and great solemnity present here  For here in the words of these prayers you hear how plaintively and earnestly the Christian church brings the infant to God, confesses before him with such unchanging, undoubting words that the infant is possessed by the devil and a child of sin and wrath, and so diligently asks for help and grace through baptism, that the infant may become a child of God.

Therefore, you have to realize that it is no joke at all to take action against the devil and not only to drive him away from the little child but also to hang around the child’s neck such a mighty, lifelong enemy.  Thus it is extremely necessary to stand by the poor child with all your heart and with a strong faith and to plead with great devotion that God, in accordance with these prayers, would not only free the child from the devil’s power but also strengthen the child, so that the child might resist him valiantly in life and in death.  I fear that people turn out so badly after baptism because we have dealt with them in such a cold and casual way and have prayed for them at their baptism without any zeal at all.

…see to it that you are present there in true faith, that you listen to God’s Word, and that you pray along earnestly.  For wherever the priest says, “Let us pray,” he is exhorting you to pray with him.  Moreover, all sponsors and the others present ought to speak along with him the words of his prayer in their hearts to God  For this reason, the priest should speak these prayers very clearly and slowly, so that the sponsors can hear and understand them and can also pray with the priest with one mind in their hearts, carrying before God the need of this little child with all earnestness, on the child’s behalf setting themselves against the devil with all their strength, and demonstrating that they take seriously what is no joke to the devil.

For this reason it is right and proper not to allow drunken and boorish priests to baptize nor to select good-for-nothings as godparents.  Instead fine, moral, serious, upright priests and godparents ought to be chose, who can be expected to treat the matter with seriousness and true faith, lest this high sacrament be abandoned to the devil’s mockery and dishonor God, who in this sacrament showers upon us the vast and boundless riches of His grace…

Martin Luther, “Baptismal Booklet”, in The Book of Concord, eds. Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert, pp. 371-373.

Thus we do…with infant baptism.  We bring the child with the intent and hope that it may believe, and we pray God to grant it faith  But we do not baptize on this basis, but solely on the command of God…

Martin Luther, Large Catechism IV: 57.  In The Book of Concord, eds. Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert, p. 464.

I keep finding more stuff that Luther had to say about the faith of unbaptized infants and about the role of the intercessory prayer of the Church or of Christians for unbelievers.  The more I read, the more convinced I am that confessional Lutherans don’t have a good grasp of the place of prayer in Luther’s theology.  It would probably be better to say–many confessional Lutheran pastors don’t have a good grasp of it.  At any rate, I clearly did not.

As you see from the first quote from the Genesis lectures (I think this portion of the lectures was given between 1538 and 1542), Luther emphasizes: God no longer wants to act in His naked majesty.  He did that when He gave the Israelites bread from heaven and when He preserved Shadrach and company in the furnace.  But now God wants to act not in His “absolute power”: “Therefore the rule stands…God no longer wants to act in accordance with His…absolute power, but wants to act through His creatures, whom He does not want to be idle.”

That statement is fascinating in itself, and I want to return to it in a minute.  But Luther goes on to say: Of course, God is able to save without using means.  We don’t say that unbaptized infants are damned–and Luther specifically names infants who are unbaptized because their parents neglected baptism!  But he says, yes, unbaptized infants are not damned, but it is still necessary for us to say that baptism is necessary for salvation.  In other words, even though God can grant the Holy Spirit apart from means, it is necessary for us to point people to the appointed means and to adhere to the means of grace.  God is not limited to the means of grace, but we are.

That is clearly what Luther is saying.  The Augsburg Confession’s statement that “baptism is necessary for salvation,” along with Luther’s statement in the Smalcald Articles to the effect that “every spirit that is separated from the Word” is the devil–must be read in this light.  It’s not that God is forced to damn all stillborn babies, all miscarriages, and all children of Lutheran parents who fail to baptize their babies the second they exit the womb, and whose babies are unlucky enough to die before baptism.  It’s that we are not permitted to despise the appointed means.

Now, why is it that Luther says that God “no longer” wants to act in His absolute, unmediated power?  Because “now in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son,” I think is what Luther is getting at.  Since God has become man, we are not to look apart from His flesh for God, since “all the fullness of the Godhead dwells in Him bodily (Colossians 2).”  Now that He has ascended and is not visible, He directs us to find Him in the means He has appointed to come to us and give us His Spirit–in His Word, in the sacrament of His body and blood, in Holy Absolution.

I’m not exactly sure of the details of this, but I know some Lutheran theologians believed or taught that Jesus’ body, since it is joined to the divine nature, is able to fill all places in creation.  Luther writes about this in the confessions–the Large Catechism?–but simply presents it in explanation to the question, “How can Christ give His flesh and blood in numerous places at the same time?”  He doesn’t say, “This is how it happens,” but simply provides it as a possible solution.  That’s because saying that Christ fills all creation as both God and man could easily be turned into a theory that overthrows the Gospel.  For instance, you could argue that since Christ now is exalted and fills all things, we could also eat His flesh and drink His blood not merely in the Lord’s Supper but in everything.

The same thing could happen with the idea that since we can pray for little children of Christians, that they will be saved, and have certainty about the answer to our prayers.  We could say “We’ve prayed for all the children in the world, so they’re all saved, with or without Baptism.”  That would have the consequence of undermining baptism.   Instead we are bound to the means God has instituted.

On the other hand, what does Luther say?  The reason so many baptized kids turn out so badly is: the sponsors don’t pray for the child from the heart–both that God would grant the child deliverance from Satan’s kingdom, and that the child would remain in the faith.  Luther says the same thing in the Large CAtechism on baptism; we pray that the Lord would grant the child faith.

I think we tend to underestimate the power of the prayer of the church.  When I first read Pieper or Walther saying that the gift of the Holy Spirit necessary for the ministry is not given through the laying on of hands but through the prayer of the church, I kind of thought that that was crazy.  Why would it happen through the prayer of the church?

It turns out Pieper and Walther were just reproducing Luther’s theology here.  Luther thinks that intercessory prayer is a mighty thing.  He thinks that it can be relied on for the salvation of unbaptized infants.  He says in the Large Catechism that the reason that the Lutheran Church and Germany hadn’t been destroyed was because of a handful of pious, belieivng Christians who prayed, “Thy Kingdom come; thy will be done.”

In its own way, this idea of Luther’s actually fits quite well with the earlier point that “God does not want to act in absolute power anymore” now that He has become incarnate.  God, of course, doesn’t need our prayer to make a baptism effective.  But God wants to work not according to His naked power, but through instruments (because He is incarnate), and so God teaches us to pray.  By means of our prayer and in answer to them, God tells moutnains to be thrown into the sea; He causes the church to pray for peace int he world and then answers their prayer.  Or he causes farmers to pray for rain and then grants it.  God works by His ordinary power, which means that He wants to use angels and human beings to do work for Him.  And that is the great privilege.  God could have done all the work Himself.  He didn’t need the angels, nor us.  But He lets the angels and us participate in the work that He could just as easily do without us.  He makes us learn to pray and intercede from the heart to Him; then He answers our prayer.  God could give daily bread without the prayer of the Church, but instead He teaches the Chruch to pray for it and then He gives it.  He makes us participants in His work.

This is why Jesus said, “whatever you ask in faith, you will receive.”

I’m trying to make some good points here but I keep falling asleep.  So I’ll have to elaborate later.  Hopefully if you’re reading this you understand what I’m trying to say.

Also, these quotes aren’t really supposed to prove anything.  This is kind of like supporting information.  But when you read this in after conjunction with Luther’s “Comfort to women who have had a misscarriage,” as well as the 3rd Sunday after Epiphany church postil, I think it is indisputable that Luther taught that unbaptized infants were given faith prior to baptism in response to the prayers of parents, christian sponsors, adn the congregation.  Anyway, I’m done now.

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  1. October 18, 2012 at 2:38 pm

    I receive much more certain comfort and peace regarding the question of the salvation of our miscarried children from the fact that they were in church regularly in the womb of their mother, within earshot of the Word, and could believe in the womb just as John the Baptist did at the sound of Mary’s greeting to Elizabeth. I leave their salvation in the very capable hand of God, who is the only one who saves, but I also cling to God’s appointed means of grace, Word and Sacrament. The only reason I would include prayer as a means is when these prayers are said within earshot of the children themselves.

    I very much disagree with Luther about a lack of prayer causing children to fall from the faith. Of course we should pray for our children and teach them the faith, and we should select sponsors who pray and watch well. We should have pastors who are serious about what they do, and who are faithful preachers and teachers. However, just as we contribute nothing to our own salvation, we contribute nothing to the salvation of others. We fulfill our vocations as fathers, mothers, sponsors, and pastors, but God’s elect cannot be snatched out of His hand by our inaction or failures. God can and will save someone if it is His will. Saying some infants and children go to Hell because of a lack of prayer by parents or sponsors is answering the unanswerable question, “why some and not others.”

    It is unbiblical to say that God saves by His absolute power outside of His appointed means. It is an unintentional but misleading appeal to emotion to say this about miscarried babies of Christians but not apply the same thing to the rest of the world. What about those who are born and live without ever hearing God’s Word? If God saves infants without means, why wouldn’t he also save the children of unbelievers without means. And, if he saves their children without means, why would he not save the parents without means? If we include praying for others as a means of salvation …well, we pray for others to be saved, don’t we? Ultimately, we end up with the same universalism taught currently in the Roman Catholic Church.

    The only thing we might have to hang our hat on to prevent universalism is the verse in Acts which says, “this promise is for you and your children.” However, Scripture must be understood in its context: “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself.” (Acts 2:38-39) This is clearly talking about salvation by means for everyone whom the Lord calls to himself.

    I do not disagree with Luther easily. However, we do not subscribe to every writing of Luther’s. Luther was a man, and was just as prone to error, contradiction, and inconsistencies as we are, as he himself admitted. We do, however, subscribe to every teaching of Luther’s found in the Book of Concord. And, in the Smalcald Articles Luther wrote unambiguously: “Therefore, we should and must constantly maintain that God will not deal with us except through His external Word and sacrament.” (Luther, Smalcald Articles VIII, Confession, §10)

    And, again, in the Augsburg Confession it is stated clearly: “That we may obtain this faith, the Ministry of Teaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments was instituted. For through the Word and Sacraments, as through instruments, the Holy Ghost is given, who works faith; where and when it pleases God, in them that hear the Gospel, to wit, that God, not for our own merits, but for Christ’s sake, justifies those who believe that they are received into grace for Christ’s sake. They condemn the Anabaptists and others who think that the Holy Ghost comes to men without the external Word, through their own preparations and works. (Article V: Of the Ministry, §1-4).

    This is the clear teaching of Scripture which we should and must constantly maintain: “Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God.” (Romans 10:17) If unborn and unbaptized infants are saved, it is God’s doing through the Word. This is the only proper source of comfort for Christians who suffer miscarriage. John the Baptist leaped in the womb at the spoken word, and all unbaptized children of Christians have the same opportunity because Christians do not neglect the assembly of believers at which the Word is spoken.

    • October 19, 2012 at 5:02 pm

      I think Luther’s comment in the baptismal booklet is part of the Book of Concord, 1580, isn’t it?

      At any rate, I’m starting to think that I have made this into a false dichotomy. In two places where Luther talks about alien faith bringing a person to Christ so that they may receive faith, we also have him insisting that faith nevertheless comes through the word. In the Church Postil, writing about alien faith and baptism, on rereading it, it seems that Luther argues against the idea that babies can’t receive faith through the Word they hear in their Baptism. He says something to the effect of “if they don’t hear with reason, as an adult hears, they nevertheless hear with faith, as a child hears.”

      That said, it is important that we don’t forget that there is a clear word in Scripture regarding prayer’s efficacy and regarding infants in the womb.

      The clear word about infants is, “Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these.”

      The clear word about prayer is, “Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours.” (Mark 11:24)

      The implication in denying what Luther and Lutheran orthodoxy taught about this issue is not only that Luther was wrong, but also inadvertantly implying that Jesus is stranded in heaven (a la the Calvinists). Jesus says with no exceptions: the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these; and as you’ve pointed out, Peter says the same thing in Acts 2: “The promise is for you and your children.” Now if we grant that, but deny that children brought to Christ in prayer are given the Holy Spirit unless they are baptized or hear the word in the womb are saved, what are we saying except that one does not really bring one’s child to Jesus in prayer?

      Prayer is not a shot in the dark. It is certain. That’s why we say “Amen.” We don’t pray simply because we are commanded to by Jesus, but otherwise it makes no difference. The Kingdom of God does not advance simply by the Church’s preaching and administration of the Sacraments; without prayer the Word and Sacraments cannot be preached and administered faithfully. Even if a minister preaches orthodox doctrine, without prayer he will miscarry the ministry. That’s what Walther is saying when he says that the distinction between law and gospel is taught by the Holy Spirit in the school of experience and what Luther means when he says that oratio, meditatio, tentatio make a theologian.

      “God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of His Son, that without ceasing I mention you always in my prayers…” (Rom. 1:9) “…take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, and also for me, that words may be given to me in opening my mouth boldly to proclaim the mystery of the gospel…” (Eph. 6:17-19)

      The Confessions affirm this. “…Therefore we read in the Scriptures that [God] is angry also with those who were smitten for their sin, because they did not return to Him and by their prayers assuage His wrath and seek His grace… (LC III: 11)” When the baptized children of our churches fall away (as the majority appear to do), and when the church suffers, and the Word seems to convert few, and churches and schools close left and right, doesn’t this apply? Aren’t we being chastened, and isn’t the proper response to call upon the Lord in the day of trouble?

      “For this we must know, that all our shelter and protection rest in prayer alone. For we are far too feeble to cope with the devil and all his power and adherents that set themselves against us, and they might easily crush us under their feet. Therefore we must consider and take up those weapons with which Christians must be armed in order to stand against the devil. For what do you think has hitherto accomplished such great things, has checked or quelled the counsels, purposes murder, and riot of our enemies, whereby the devil thought to crush us, together with the Gospel, except that the prayer of a few godly men intervened like a wall of iron on our side?” (LC III:31)

      When the word and sacraments are administered or used without prayer, we have a dangerous situation. We are behaving as if the Spirit’s instruments are our tools to use according to the wisdom of the old Adam, but apart from the Holy Spirit we can’t administer or receive the Word and Sacraments beneficially. And Jesus directs us to pray continually for the gift of the Holy Spirit (Luke 12).

      In Baptism the devil is stripped of one of his servants. In the preaching of God’s Word the devil is driven away from Christ’s flock. If the disciples were unable to cast out a certain unclean spirit, even though they had been given authority over unclean spirits by Jesus, it should not come as a surprise if our coldness in prayer is connected to the temporal punishments we experience in the church in the form of heretics, schism, apostasy, etc. Those things often come to us to teach us to pray.

      I thank you for your discussion of the word of God with me. I know that this is a personal matter for you as well as simply being your concern as a Christian. I think this is worthy of attention because it points out a failing in the way theology is often done and applied among LCMS confessionals, and it is also a serious issue for pastoral care. But as I said, I’m not sure that your concern is wrong or that it isn’t shared by Luther. Note that he says, “We don’t say that unbaptized infants are damned,” but also at the same time he insists that it must be preached that there is no salvation apart from baptism. In other words, people are not to be given any permission to depart from the means employed by the Holy Spirit. So it may be that Luther would not go as far as Bugenhagen (and later Gerhard) in simply saying that Christ works faith in unbaptized infants apart from means.

      • October 19, 2012 at 6:08 pm

        Luther’s Baptismal Booklet is definitely NOT part of the Book of Concord to which our pastors and churches subscribe. Despite pleas from Jakob Andreae, several princes (including Ludwig VI of the Palatinate) and their theologians specifically objected to its inclusion in the Book of Concord. [Kolb p 346-347]

        You are right that, in addition to being of doctrinal concern, this is a personal matter for me as well. The practical pastoral concerns I have with this are as great as the doctrinal concerns (though they both are connected since all proper theology is pastoral theology). I personally neglected to pray for my unborn children before they died. I repent, but I also object to pointing anyone to human acts of prayer for comfort regarding the salvation of dead children. The object of our comfort must be objective: Christ, coming to us through the external Word!

        My comfort and consolation is that by God’s grace my unborn children were present at the reading, preaching, and loud and beautiful liturgical praying of God’s Word while in the womb of their mother. We are Christians, and Christians do not neglect the assembly of believers, even if we do fail to say all the right prayers. We must point mourners to Christ and His external Word, which is never neglected by the Christian.

        Incidentally, I did pray for my children AFTER each died. I do not place my hope in those prayers, but I did pray, as my heart and soul could not help but cry out to our Father in heaven. As you no doubt know (though few others do) Lutherans do not believe prayers for the dead are useless. Exactly what those prayers accomplish, even if only for the survivors, we do not say. But we do say:

        “Regarding the adversaries’ quoting the Fathers about the offering for the dead, we know that the ancients speak of prayer for the dead, which we do not ban.” (Ap. XXI:94) and “Epiphanius declares that Aerius maintained prayers for the dead are useless. He finds fault with this. We do not favor Aerius either.” (Ap XXI:96). The funeral service provided in Lutheran Service Book prays: “Give to Your whole Church in heaven and on earth Your light and Your peace…. Grant that all who have been nourished by the holy body and blood of Your Son may be raised to immortality and incorruption to be seated with Him at Your heavenly banquet.”

        I prayed these prayers knowing that God hears our prayers outside of the confines of earthly time and space, and fully confident in faith that He provides and cares for each of us even without our prayers, just as “God gives daily bread, even without our prayer, to all wicked men; but we pray in this petition that He would lead us to know it, and to receive our daily bread with thanksgiving.”

      • October 19, 2012 at 9:23 pm

        Yes, Luther says to pray for the dead once or twice and then leave it alone. I find comfort in that.

        You really should read his “comfort for women who have had a miscarriage.” He writes there something to the effect that God hears the heart’s sighs and groans to God, through which the Spirit asks for things for us that are beyond all we desire and expect. So the idea isn’t that parents better immediately pray for their kids, or the church better be praying for kids in the prayer of the church, just as it’s not right for the pastor to no longer baptize babies at the church but just be present at the hospital to baptize the second each is born. The point is that we should not act like the children of Christians who die before they can be baptized are the same as the children of Muslims or animists, whose parents can’t bring their children to Jesus in prayer or any other way because they do not believe.

      • October 19, 2012 at 11:24 pm

        I have read Luther’s “Comfort for women who have had a miscarriage.” The children of Christians are conceived in sin the same as the children of Muslims and animists. I believe Scripture makes that clear. What makes Christian children in the womb different is that they are with their mothers who are in the presence of the saving Word, just as John the Baptist. The elect shall not be snatched out of the hand of God, even if they die before birth or baptism. God can and does save them according to his calling through the Word, just as John leaped in Mary’s womb. We certainly have more reason to speak consoling and comforting to Christian parents who have suffered miscarriage, but not because of their prayers or silent groanings. No, rather on account of the saving Word. I don’t understand Luther’s deviation from this doctrine, as it is completely unnecessary. Christians always have the Word.

  2. October 19, 2012 at 11:32 pm

    Much of what I read on this matter amounts to an emotional appeal which clouds our doctrinal senses. It is well-intentioned rhetoric, but with very weak (if any) logical, pastoral, Scriptural, Confessional or theological support. And, again, it is completely unnecessary because Christians always have the Word.

  3. October 19, 2012 at 11:40 pm

    Luther wrote “Comfort for women who have had a miscarriage” late in his life in 1542. I believe Luther’s mind was more clear on this matter in his earlier years when he wrote this in the Smalcald Articles, Part III, Article VIII. Of Confession:

    7] For even those who believe before Baptism, or become believing in Baptism, believe through the preceding outward Word, as the adults, who have come to reason, must first have heard: He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, even though they are at first unbelieving, and receive the Spirit and Baptism ten years afterwards. 8] Cornelius, Acts 10:1ff , had heard long before among the Jews of the coming Messiah, through whom he was righteous before God, and in such faith his prayers and alms were acceptable to God (as Luke calls him devout and God-fearing), and without such preceding Word and hearing could not have believed or been righteous. But St. Peter had to reveal to him that the Messiah (in whom, as one that was to come, he had hitherto believed) now had come, lest his faith concerning the coming Messiah hold him captive among the hardened and unbelieving Jews, but know that he was now to be saved by the present Messiah, and must not, with the [rabble of the] Jews deny nor persecute Him.

    9] In a word, enthusiasm inheres in Adam and his children from the beginning [from the first fall] to the end of the world, [its poison] having been implanted and infused into them by the old dragon, and is the origin, power [life], and strength of all heresy, especially of that of the Papacy and Mahomet. 10] Therefore we ought and must constantly maintain this point, that God does not wish to deal with us otherwise than through the spoken Word and the Sacraments. 11] It is the devil himself whatsoever is extolled as Spirit without the Word and Sacraments. For God wished to appear even to Moses through the burning bush and spoken Word; and no prophet neither Elijah nor Elisha, received the Spirit without the Ten Commandments [or spoken Word]. 12] Neither was John the Baptist conceived without the preceding word of Gabriel, nor did he leap in his mother’s womb without the voice of Mary. 13] And Peter says, 2 Pet. 1:21: The prophecy came not by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. Without the outward Word, however, they were not holy, much less would the Holy Ghost have moved them to speak when they still were unholy [or profane]; for they were holy, says he, since the Holy Ghost spake through them.

  1. October 15, 2012 at 6:02 am
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  3. November 1, 2012 at 6:48 pm
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